Scope of application of catalysts
Catalysts prepared by loading active components and co-catalysts on a carrier are called supported catalysts. The properties of the carrier mainly include: improving the mechanical strength of the catalyst, improving its heat and mass transfer performance, and providing a supporting surface for active components.
A suitable carrier plays an important role in the reaction. The carrier is generally selected from two aspects: physical properties and chemical properties. The physical properties mainly include the mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, microstructure and macrostructure of the catalyst carrier. The chemical properties mainly include Chemical stability, structural sensitivity, and interaction with active components of catalyst supports.
There are many kinds of catalysts, which can be divided into liquid catalysts and solid catalysts according to the state. According to the phase state of the reaction system, they can be divided into homogeneous catalysts and heterogeneous catalysts. Homogeneous catalysts include acids, bases, soluble transition metal compounds and peroxides. Physical catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts include solid acid catalysts, etc., and are divided into polymerization, polycondensation, esterification, acetalization, hydrogenation, dehydrogenation, oxidation, reduction, alkylation, isomerization and other catalysts according to the type of reaction. The size of the effect is also divided into main and co-catalyst.
Catalysts exert their strengths in chemical industrial production, scientists' experiments, and life activities. For example, in the production of sulfuric acid, manganese dioxide pentoxide is used as a catalyst. The synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen is a multi-component catalyst mainly composed of iron, and it is necessary to improve the reaction rate.
Catalysts are even more indispensable for refineries, and gasoline and kerosene of different qualities can be obtained by using different catalysts. Chemical synthesis of acidic and basic Chromas catalysts. Car exhaust contains harmful carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, which can be quickly converted into harmless carbon dioxide and nitrogen if metals such as platinum are used as catalysts.